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Scientific collaboration between Professor Marco Toscani and Dr. Pasquale Fino, Chair of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Umberto I Health Center – “Sapienza” University of Rome.

Brittle hair is hair that appears opaque and without shininess. It is characterized by glaringly visible damage and deterioration of the shaft.
The causes that lead to the problem of brittle hair may be of endogenous and exogenous origin.

An improper diet, psychological stress, genetic differences and hormonal imbalances are among the endogenous causes. Excessive exposure to the sun, atmospheric pollution and aggressive and frequent cosmetic hair treatments are instead among the exogenous causes of the condition.
Usually fine, thin hair becomes brittle more quickly and easily compared to thick and resistant hair, as its keratin structure is less compact and resistant.

As it is less hydrated due to the absence or reduction of sebum, dry and thin hair suffers damage from external agents more easily and as a result appears brittle. We can also include split ends in the category of brittle hair, i.e. when the shaft shows a breakage at the end.
To understand the hair deterioration and breakage process, it is important to understand its structure.

A cross section of the hair shows three concentric layers called the medulla, cortex and cuticle. The cuticle, which forms the outermost layer, is composed of keratin shingles (65-95%) overlapping on top of each other.
They form a hard, tough shield which has the function of protecting the hair from external chemical and environmental agents.
Under a microscope, brittle hair shows the absence of a cuticle. Without a cuticle, the hair will thin, becoming increasingly weak and fragile.
This leads to the deterioration of the structure of the keratin (compact microfilaments) which makes up the hair cortex. Hair found in these conditions and subject to a trichological or aggressive cosmetic treatment ends up deteriorating and ruining the cohesion and compactness of the cortex, resulting in the hair becoming brittle, easily breakable and more likely to fall out.

In the presence of brittle hair, it is necessary to avoid subjecting hair to vigorous brushing, chemical treatments, hair dyes, styling, bleaching, excessive exposure to the sunrays and other aggressive treatments. These methods cause massive damage to hair, as they destroy the keratin structure and impoverish the hair shaft of the sulphur-containing amino-acids necessary for making hair stronger and more resistant. These precautions are necessary to avoid further hair breakage, but are not a cure for hair that is already ruined. If hair is already ruined, it is important to act by identifying and overcoming the causes.

Excluding situations that require medical expertise, in the majority of cases the care and prevention of brittle hair can be managed by modelling a hair treatment on the specific and personal characteristics of the brittle hair in question, using customized trichological products and paying attention to avoid behavior that endanger the health of the hair.

L’alopécie psychogène

Psychogenic alopecia is a type of hair loss related to stress. Though not yet scientifically explained, this connection is well-known in the experience of those working with the problem. In addition to stress, other causes are personality disorders, states of anxiety and depression, all of which are conditions of acute or chronic stress.

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Psoriasis du cuir chevelu

La psoriasi è una frequente dermatosi cronica eritemo-squamosa con squama tipica (psoriasica), circoscritta o diffusa.
La psoriasi è un problema del cuoio capelluto non annoverata tra le cause che comportano la caduta dei capelli.

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Hyperhidrose

Excess sweat production on the entire surface of the body or just in some areas (especially the scalp, palms of the hands, soles of the feet) is called hyperhidrosis.
Some of the causes that may lead to temporary hyperhidrosis are physical hyperactivity, fevers, saunas, vomiting and dysentery. Causes that may instead lead to a repeated state of hyperhidrosis are hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia and alcoholism

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Follicules et bulbes pileux

A hair follicle is a formation of epidermal origin, anchored in the dermis and consisting of a hair and its sheath.
The formation of hair follicles occurs early. They begin to appear as early as the second month of gestation. These follicles will continue to form for the entire duration of the pregnancy. At birth, the baby will indeed have the entire supply of follicles with which it was genetically equipped and from this moment on, no others will form.

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Alopécie séborrhéique

Seborrheic hair loss is a form of premature hair loss that generally afflicts men in their youth (onset between 20 and 30 years of age), mainly affecting the frontal region and the crown. The cause, as the name of the condition suggests, is related to an excess production of sebum that provokes or accelerates hair loss.

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Hair loss (telogen defluvium)

With the term Telogen Defluvium we mean a modest, not excessive, loss of hair in the telogen phase, but which tends to often be irreversible, with the precise characteristics of hair in decay or involution. The hair that falls out is usually short and fine, with bulbs that are undeveloped and reduced in size.

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