Scientific Area

Seborrheic dermatitis

CATEGORIES SCIENTIFIC AREA

Scientific collaboration between Professor Marco Toscani and Dr. Pasquale Fino, Chair of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Umberto I Health Center – “Sapienza” University of Rome.

Seborrheic dermatitis is a very common scalp condition characterized by the presence of yellow and oily flakes on the skin.

It is associated with erythema, small scaly, and intense itching.
Seborrheic dermatitis is a well-known condition but is still not easily identifiable. Many men and women starting from puberty have oily, greasy, shiny and thickened skin with large hair follicles, especially noticeable around the nose and mouth, forehead, torso, scalp (affected by so-called oily dandruff).
Seborrheic dermatitis appears in these individuals. It is characterized by red, reddish-yellow or dark red skin patches, covered with small and medium sized, thick and greasy flakes, sometimes appearing as scaly formations with blisters that are not easily noticed.

Seborrheic eczema is a typical form surrounded by seborrheic dermatitis limited to certain areas of the body, found at the level of the sternum and shoulder blades, characterized by various round patches with clearly defined convex edges. Another form is characterized by pityriasiform and psoriasiform patches. Complications of seborrheic dermatitis are: eczematization (the most common complication), external otitis, occipital and nuchal eczema, umbilical eczema, areola eczema in women and lastly perineum-genital eczema.

Often, seborrheic dermatitis is located on the scalp and along its edges. An irregular patch often emerges from the scalp onto the forehead called a “seborrheic crown”. It is important to remember that seborrheic dermatitis in and of itself does not cause hair loss.
The etiopathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis is not completely clear. Recognized concurrent causes are bacterial, fungal (Malassezia), infectious, mechanical, irritative, psychosomatic and sebaceous dysfunction (most probably of genetic origin) factors. In the case of seborrheic dermatitis sebum undergoes a chemical transformation. In fact, a reduction of triglycerides, squalene and cholesterol occurs.

Hair treatments like lotions and shampoos are commonly used as local anti-seborrheic treatments. Non-halogenated corticosteroids in the form of gels or lotions are very effective. Antibiotics and antifungal treatments may also be used. Positive results have also been achieved by using retinoic acid and ketoconazole, general purpose antifungals.

Seborrheic dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis is a very common scalp condition characterized by the presence of yellow and oily flakes on the skin.

It is associated with erythema, small scaly, and intense itching.
Seborrheic dermatitis is a well-known condition but is still not easily identifiable. Many men and women starting from puberty have oily, greasy, shiny and thickened skin with large hair follicles, especially noticeable around the nose and mouth, forehead, torso, scalp (affected by so-called oily dandruff).

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Hyperseborrhea

Hyperseborrhea or hypersecretion of sebum is simply a scalp problem due to an excessive production of sebum caused by hyperactivity of the sebaceous glands. Immediate symptoms of hyperseborrhea are scalp itchiness and pain. However, a later symptom is hair loss.

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Female hair loss

Female hair loss is a common form of non-scarring hair loss, characterized by the progressive loss of hair in the forehead and crown regions, resulting in visible thinning. Unlike male hair loss, female hair loss in the affected areas is usually incomplete and the occipital area is generally spared.

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Hair loss (telogen effluvium)

The term Telogen Effluvium was introduced for the first time by Kligman (*) in 1961 to introduce an acute hair loss of benign origin that follows an intense and short period of stress of different types. Subsequently, Rebora (**) introduced the concept of chronic Telogen Effluvium.

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Sebaceous glands

The sebaceous glands are glands that secrete sebum, an oily, acidic substance with a pH of 3.5. They are connected laterally to the hair follicle. Sebaceous glands are found with a density of approximately 100/cm2 throughout all areas of the skin. In the human body, they are located across the entire surface of the skin, except for the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.

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Hyperhidrosis

Excess sweat production on the entire surface of the body or just in some areas (especially the scalp, palms of the hands, soles of the feet) is called hyperhidrosis.
Some of the causes that may lead to temporary hyperhidrosis are physical hyperactivity, fevers, saunas, vomiting and dysentery. Causes that may instead lead to a repeated state of hyperhidrosis are hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia and alcoholism

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